Secondary prevention attempts to avert at-risk youth from escalating towards pathological gambling and includes early identification strategies.
The present paper reviews studies that have been conducted worldwide sinceand then presents a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling research in Europe, by providing a yoyth country analysis. After an extensive search on academic databases and following an exclusion process, 44 youth problem were identified.
The findings showed that 0. However, despite this variability, several demographic characteristics were associated with adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling. It is concluded that a small but significant minority of card gambling post have gambling-related problems.
Such findings will hopefully encourage more research into youth gambling to further understand the determinants of this phenomenon. International studies have consistently shown that gambling is part of the life experiences of most young people Hayer and Griffiths Furthermore, the current generation of youth have grown up in an era where gambling opportunities are widespread Volberg et al.
In addition, the development of technology has generated new forms of gambling via the Internet, mobile phone and gambling television Griffiths gamblijg Parke It has also been argued that youth are receptive to modern forms of gambling because of the apparent similarity between these games and other familiar technology-based games Gambling et al.
Furthermore, the new oleans casino availability of legal gambling appears to have led to some increases in the prevalence of adolescent gambling and to the development of gambling problems among young people.
Thus, concerns about adolescent gambling have encouraged public health workers to study the epidemiology of gambling as this helps to characterize this phenomenon Gupta problem Derevensky Consequently, there is a need for conducting a systematic review in order to synthesize the trends in adolescent metropolis monte casino and to analyse the comparative prevalence of problem gambling rates across different countries.
Therefore, the aim of the present review is twofold. Firstly, to briefly review the most recent international research published sincewith respect to problem gambling prevalence rates among adolescents, as the past few decades have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the gambling industry, which could have led to the development of gambling-related problems among young goldstrike casino in Meyer et al.
Secondly to present a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling in Europe. Although there are other reviews in the literature concerning adolescent gambling e. Therefore, the present review updates and expands on previous reviews and provides a youfh country-by-country analysis of the evidence of adolescent gambling and problem gambling in that particular country in yokth order. A literature search was carried out using the following databases: The following gmbling terms were used: The search was conducted with the same terms in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, in order gambling obtain as many prevalence studies as possible and to avoid English publication bias.
The studies were selected on the basis of containing the following criteria: Moreover, reference lists of retrieved studies and from other reviews already available in the literature were gamblig searched in order to identify any additional relevant studies. The goal was to locate all prevalence studies that gqmbling conducted at a national level. Therefore, for countries that had prevalence problen at gambling regional and national level, only national data were considered.
However, in the case of countries that did problek have a national prevalence study, but instead had conducted studies at a regional level with a representative sample, newspaper article on gambling addiction studies were included. Studies were also excluded if they 1 had a sample size of less than participants, 2 did not use a standardized instrument to assess problem gambling, and 3 assessed problem gamblingg in the context of a specific form of gambling, such as Internet gambling.
Delfabbro and Thrupp Kristiansen and Jensen Ashworth and Doyle a. Griffiths and Wood ; Gsmbling Forrest and Gambling Ipsos MORI a. Skokauskas and Satkeviciute There is no legal prohibition for lotteries. This paper summarized probable problem gambling gamblibg nine European countries using data from ESPAD, and which did not indicate the response rates for each country.
After analysing the ESPAD report in detail, it can be observed that student problek rates were not available for Cyprus, Italy and Romania, and thus the response rates for these countries were ga,bling reported in the present review. Prolbem information reported is based on a English abstract and in the review of Kristiansen and Jensen conducted among yambling Nordic countries, and thus it was not possible to obtain more specific information about the methodology, such as the modality of survey used and response rates.
The present review considers the combined rate of problem and pathological gambling, as many studies merge problem gambling with pathological gambling compared to behaviour from non-gamblers and non-problem gamblers bambling. The present overview of research on adolescent gambling and problem gambling across the world conducted since shows that there are many countries that have never carried out studies on adolescent gambling behaviour.
In fact, most gamblig on adolescent gambling has been conducted in Europe, North America and Australia. However, despite the lack of research in some countries, studies show that 0. It should also be noted that there are some variations in problem gambling prevalence rates that occur among different continents: In Europe, problem gambling prevalence rates ranged from 0.
Consequently, European studies showed the highest and the lowest adolescent problem gambling prevalence rate. Therefore, in youth problem gambling next section, a more detailed overview about adolescent gambling and problem gambling in the European continent will be presented. The European Union appears to be moving towards a more continued expansion of gambling characterized by the legalization and liberalization of gambling markets over the past few decades Kingma This may put more young people at risk of developing gambling-related problems, especially underage youth, and suggests the need to provide a full overview of the European continent.
Since it was proposed to provide a more detailed examination about gambling and problem gambling in each European country, the probkem review also includes some studies that yoyth not included in the initial gamling, such as studies that did not use a standardized yout gambling assess problem gambling five studies or studies that assessed problem gambling in the context of a specific mode of gambling, such as online gambling two studies.
Nonetheless, the criterion for excluding studies with less than participants was maintained, youth problem gambling. In order to present a more in-depth analysis for each European country, other data from other studies such as a description about the most popular gambling activities, and demographics associated with problem gambling are included.
However, there are 22 European countries where youht empirical research into adolescent gambling and problem gambling has been carried out: There are some data available for this country, as a part of a wider study that examined gambling problem gambling across nine European countries Molinaro et al. As a part of a wider prbolem of youth habits, Kinable conducted a study with 38, adolescents aged 12—years. Results showed that During the previous six years, participation problwm on those gambling activities youth been decreasing each year from However, no information was provided with regard to problem gambling prevalence rates.
No standardized instrument to assess problem gambling was applied to students. From the total of participants, 6. With respect to the type of gambling they had participated in, There are some gambling concerning adolescent gambling in Cyprus, as a part of a wider study that examined adolescent problem gambling across nine European countries Molinaro et al.
Another more recent study examined online gambling casino hotels in biloxi Cyprus Floros et al. The results indicated that Online gambling was associated with significantly higher Internet Addiction scores, lower parental care, and higher parental overprotection. Individuals with serious conduct problems as beat online casino using the SDQ questionnaire were more likely to gamble.
There is one Croatian study on adolescent gambling conducted by Dodigwhich used the CAGI, an instrument created online casino exploiter v0 for assessing adolescent problem gambling Tremblay et al. The results showed that The findings showed that the proportion of gambling-related problems were more prevalent among young men.
The overall prevalence rate of problem gambling was 1. Older respondents reported more gambling problems, although this relationship did not reach statistical significance Kristiansen and Gamblong Problem gamblers participated in more different gambling activities than at-risk gamblers, who casino frontier joseph st turn participated in more activities than non-problem gamblers.
Moreover, at-risk gamblers and problem gamblers played via their mobile phones and on the Internet to a greater extent than non-problem gamblers. Furthermore, the most frequently gambling reasons for engaging in gambling behaviours youthh to win money Gambling probleem escape problems and the inability to resist temptation were reported more frequently among the at-risk and problem gamblers than among the non-problem gamblers.
It was also reported that problem and at-risk gamblers more often played with friends or alone than with parents. With regard to youth gambling, a study was conducted on behalf of the Finnish Proglem of Social Affairs and Gambling during Ilkas and Aho Moreover, it was estimated that the risk group for problem gambling included approximately 1.
A more recent study was carried out problen Raisamo et al. However, the survey did not use any standardised instrument to assess problem gambling. In addition, the total number of harms experienced by adolescents during the past 6-month period as a consequence of their gambling was 2.
The prevalence of gambling was significantly higher among boys than girls. There are a number of empirical studies examining adolescent gambling in Germany see Hayerbut the majority of them are only available in the German language. The first study was conducted by Hurrelmann problemm al.
A more recent study was conducted by Duven et al. The problem gambling rate was 2. Problem gamblers were more likely to be boys than girls Ashworth and Doyle The survey showed a prevalence of problem gambling of 3. The results showed gamblint problem gamblers were more likely to exhibit other potentially gambling behaviours i.
According to the survey, higher problem rates were found for smokers 6. Boys were more likely than girls to be probem as problem gamblers 1. Gamblibg, the authors claimed that any comparisons between surveys should be treated with caution as there were significant differences with regard to sample sizes, as well as the number of sessions per school Ipsos MORI Finally, another representative dataset concerning adolescent gambling was derived from the ESPAD study Molinaro et al.
There have been very few studies on adolescent gambling behaviour in Greece. To our knowledge, only one study conducted in the Greek island of Kos examining adolescent Internet gambling Floros et al. Youth to both instruments, females were less likely to be classed as problem gamblers.Introduction. The recent growth of gambling problems among youth around the world is alarming. Researchers, clinicians, educators and the public have only. Youth Gambling Facts. Share. Things Youth Should Know: Both boys and girls can develop gambling problems; The feelings to win are potentially addictive. Problem gambling among youth is a growing public health concern. While gambling activities are predominantly viewed as an innocuous adult.